Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Municipality
It is located in the south-eastern part of Lower Silesia, in the Ząbkowicki District. The unusual location in the proglacial stream valley of Nysa Kłodzka makes it an area of very interesting landscapes.
The land of Kamieniec borders in the east with Przedgórze Paczkowskie (Paczków Foothills) and in the north-west with Obniżenie Ząbkowickie (Ząbkowice Depression). The southern boundary is the range of the Góry Złote (Golden Mountains), while the western end is marked by the Góry Bardzkie (Bardzkie Mountains).
The Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Municipality owes landform and landscape to Nysa Kłodzka, which runs across the territory over the length of more than 10 km. The river flows into Topola and Kozielno reservoirs that were created at the beginning of the 21st century. In the municipality there are also Pilce and Bartniki post-gravel ponds, which interestingly blend into the skyline of the eastern part of the Sudeten. The proximity of the mountains, ponds, reservoirs and Nysa valley make it an extremely mysterious place, practically unseen anywhere else in Poland.
It is located on the Podgórze Sudeckie (Sudeten Foothills) in the so-called “niecka kamieniecka” (Kamieniec Trough) – proglacial stream valley of Nysa Kłodzka. It has a large railway junction connecting Wrocław with Prague and Nysa with Legnica, so there is a convenient connection to the villages from all over the country and abroad.
The oldest traces of settlement in Kamieniec Ząbkowicki come from the Neolithic (Stone Age). The first mention of Kamieniec comes from Kosmas Chronicle from 1096, when the Czech Duke Bretislaus invaded Silesia and destroyed located on Nysa Kłodzka Bardo fortress. A little further to the east of Bardo he built a town set on a rock and next to it, the chapel of St Prokop.
Kamieniec took its name from that rock. A similar message passes the Chronicle of Silesia and Jan Długosz also mentions this fact. The convenient location made Kamieniec a strategically important fortress. According to Gall Anonymous, pursuant to the agreement concluded between Bolesław Krzywousty (Bolesław III Wrymouth) and Bořivoj, Duke of Bohemia, Kamieniec fell into the hands of Poles as a guarantee of maintaining the agreement. Krzywousty stayed in the fortress of Kamieniec in times of danger of invasion of foreign troops.
IMPORTANT DATES IN THE HISTORY
1096 – conquest and destruction of the polish border fortress of Bardo. To protect the pass and the trail between Silesia and the Czech Republic, Duke of Bohemia Bretislaus II builds a castle within 10 km upstream of Kamieniec.
1200 – Wrocław chapter of St Mary on the Sand carries out the arrowezyjska reform (reform of monasteries) on the initiative of the Abbot Alard (1198 – 1208). The former parish priest Vincent of Pogorzela and several of his supporters oppose the reform. The Bishop of Wrocław – Wawrzyniec, decides to transfer them to Kamieniec. He entrusts them to set up a rectory under the control of the chapter. Dozens of surrounding villages belong to the newly founded monastery, as well as the castellan parish in Bardo.
1207 – monks come to the rectory in Kamieniec.
1243 – after the death of the Abbot Ulryk (1230 – 1240) Wincent of Pogorzela is elected to this position. He leaves the monastery and only 3-4 monks are left in Kamieniec. Soon, they give up monastic discipline. Tomasz I, the Bishop of Wrocław, orders to reform the community. After its failure, the rectory passes into the hands of Cistercian Monastery in Lubiąż.
1246 – January 7 – transfer of the rectory to the Abbot Henryk of Lubiąż. Cistercian order with the Abbot Ludwik comes to Kamieniec. Abbot Wincenty expels monks, who arrived.
1290 – control over Kamieniec is taken over by Principality of Świdnica-Jawor.
1318 – the beginning of construction of the Gothic monastery complex.
1322 – Kamieniec under the reign of the Principality of Ziębice.
1341 – flood on the lands of monastery and total destruction of the Pilce village.
1350 – completion of construction of the church.
1351 – monastery and the district of Ząbkowice passes under the rule of Czech crown.
1359 – Nysa floods the whole area of the monastery.
1388 – completion of construction of the main body of the monastery.
1405 – the chapter’s hall is flooded
1425 – the Hussite Wars include also Silesia. In December Hussites attack and ravage the monastery, many monks are killed or burned.
1426 – May 18 – Hussites raid on the monastery and set fire to it.
1428 – May 20 – re-destruction of the monastery by Hussites. Reduced to 14 people, the order seeks refuge in exile.
1434 – order returns from exile, reconstruction of the abbey.
1439 – rebellious nobles attack the monastery, Abbot Krzysztof falls victim to the plague in Nysa, the monastery is fortified by walls, fire in the monastery.
1451 – monastic lands under the reign of the Dukes of Ziębice of the Poděbrady family
1464 – during the flood water floods the church to the level of the windows.
1467 – the lands of the monastery of Kamieniec become the scene of a dispute between the excommunicated Czech king George of Poděbrady and Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus, Czech governor occupies the monastery, continuous attempts to conquest the monastery, expulsion of the order and devastation of the monastery lands.
1473 – the beginning of the reconstruction of the abbey.
1496 – another disaster of flood in the monastery.
1501 – May 15 – flood destroys part of the walls of the monastery.
1520 (about) – due to the strong floods Abbot Szymon changed the course of the river, it is diverted to a new riverbed from Kamieniec in a south-westerly direction.
1524 – November 21– fire almost completely destroys the monastery, reconstruction takes place very slowly.
1538 – Reformation reaches the Duchy of Ziębice-Oleśnica, Kamieniec loses support of Silesia and a dozen villages, the monastery monks accept the new faith.
1557 – selection of Abbot Szymon Neumann, the completion of the reconstruction of the monastery.
1598 – August 24 – Nysa floods the area of the monastery, landslide of the mountain in Bardo
1621 – the monastery bears a great loss during the siege of Kłodzko by the army of King Frederick, Elector Palatine.
1623 – because of the high cost of living, there is famine in the monastic lands.
1633 – plague outbreak, many victims in the assets of the monastery.
1641 – after the death of Abbot Krzysztof Hochgesang, Szymon III, the former Abbot of Lubiąż, is elected for his successor, members of the order do not agree to the selection of one of them, Abbot Szymon appoints his own troops to defend the monastery against deserters.
1661 – flourishing of the monastery under the Abbot Kacper Kales
1665 – the reconstruction of the church; the walls have been preserved during the war.
1675 – rebuilding and enlargement of the building of the monastery, wing of enclosure is built, later are created: a brewery, a bakery, a fortress with a stone bridge over the mill moat, a tavern and a grange.
1681 – with a selection of Abbot August Neudeck the monastery begins to flourish, the complex of buildings is growing rapidly and a few new parish churches in baroque style are built.
1702 – the abbey is taken over by Gerard Woywod.
1705 – the setting of the Baroque altar in the monastery church.
1741 – February 27 – during the first Silesian war in Braszowice, it comes to skirmishes between Prussian and Austrian armies; during the three Silesian wars King Frederick II of Prussia visited the monastery several times.
1742 – selection of Abbot Tobiasz Stusche, expansion of the monastery and the lavish lifestyle of the monks lead to serious financial problems.
1747 – Abbot Tobias Stusche is also a direct successor of sympathizing with the Habsburgs, revoked by King Frederick II of Prussia, Abbot Konstantyn of Lubiąż.
1763 – as a result of the Seven Years’ War King Frederick II of Prussia takes possession of the most of Silesia, the reform of the Catholic Church and monastic estates additionally burdens the monastery financially.
1783 – another flood – Nysa floods the monastery.
1810 – with selection of 53rd Abbot Placidius Hoffmann, the time of the Cistercian Order in Kamieniec is over.
1810 – October 30 – secularization decree.
1810 – November 22 – liquidation of the monastery; the order composed of 38 people, led by Abbot Placidius Hoffmann, leaves the monastery.
1812 – transfer of a part of library collections to Wrocław, the rest is sold or destroyed.
1812 – February 25 – Princess Friederike Luise Wilhelmine of Prussia buys monastic estates of Kamieniec and Henryków. Prince of Orange-Nassau, later King of the Netherlands, stays here for a few months in exile.
1817 – February 9 – monastery fire, the transverse nave, the chapter hall and refectory are burnt entirely; the presbytery in the Church suffers the most. Only the wing of enclosure and part of the west wing are preserved, the medieval cloister is cut off from the rest of the buildings.
1837 – death of the Queen of the Netherlands Friederike; after the division of inheritance the youngest daughter Marianne takes possession of Kamieniec.
1838 – Princess Marianne intends to build her residence in Kamieniec. The construction is commissioned to outstanding architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.
1838 – Schinkel presents Princess Marianne first and second draft; after giving approval its implementation is entrusted to Ferdinand Martius, the construction site is set on the hill of the Góry Bardzkie (Bardzkie Mountains).
1838 – October 15 – foundation stone is laid for the construction of the palace.
1840 – Schinkel is visiting the building site for the second and last time. Princess Marianne orders construction of the hunter’s lodge near the intersection in the direction of the Złoty Stok.
1844 – June 13 – consecration of the first Protestant chapel in the north-eastern tower of the castle.
1859 – the beginning of works on the garden terraces and fountains according to the plans of Lenné.
1865 – construction of the castle is complete in the main phase.
1866 – interruption of construction because of the war between Prussia and Austria. Kamieniec is for a short period of time the headquarters of the Prussian heir to the throne.
1870 – 1871 – during the German-French war the works on the construction of the palace are interrupted for the third time.
1873 – completion of the construction of the palace.
1875 – July 15 – foundation stone laid for Protestant parish church.
1885 – July 15 – consecration of Protestant parish church, at that time Kamieniec has 935 inhabitants.
1904 – renovation of the monastery church, the baroque plasters are removed and stone walls exposed.
1926 – Kamieniec has about 2600 inhabitants.
1940 – The last descendant of the Hohenzollern Albrecht line, prince Frederick Henry of Prussia dies in Kamieniec, he was buried in a mausoleum in the park. The heir is Prince Waldemar of Prussia.
1945 – May 8 – seizure of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki by the Red Army.
1945 – January / February – fire of the palace.
1945 – 1954 – Kamieniec Ząbkowicki (combined with Łopienica and Istebka) is the seat of the municipality, during the postwar period a discussion on the choice of the village, which was to be the seat of the municipality, has been called. Maintained is the protocol from District National Council in Kamieniec from 27 March 1947, according to which they discussed the order on administrative division made by the governor of Wrocław and read the protocol of the meeting of Goleniów Śląski district, which spoke against the seat of the municipality to be in Kamieniec and demanded it to be in Goleniów Śląski. This claim was rejected. Resolution of the Municipal National Council stated: „Mając dobro ogółu mieszkańców na względzie, tak rolników, robotników jak również i pracowników umysłowych, a uznając że do gminy Kamieniec w przeważnej części należą gromady o charakterze typowo rolniczym, oraz biorąc pod uwagę wygląd reprezentacyjny Kamieńca, jak i miejsce położenia – Gminna Rada Narodowa powzięła uchwałę, aby miejscem, siedzibą gminy był Kamieniec” (Having the good of all residents in mind, as well as farmers, laborers and white-collar workers, recognizing that to the Kamieniec Municipality belong mostly districts of agricultural character and taking into account the presentable appearance of Kamieniec, as well as its location – Municipal National Council adopted a resolution to place the seat of the municipality in Kamieniec).
1955 – 1972 – Kamieniec Ząbkowicki is the seat of the District’s National Council and from 1957 to 1972, the seat of the National Council of the Settlement Kamieniec Ząbkowicki.
1958 – January 1 – Kamieniec Ząbkowicki is excluded from the area of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki District and receives the status of a settlement. The legal basis was the § 6 of the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 29 November 1957 on the creation of certain settlements in the voivodeships of Katowice, Kielce, Kraków, Lublin, Poznań and Wrocław, Journal of Laws no. 59 of 1957, item 317: „w powiecie ząbkowickim, województwie wrocławskim tworzy się osiedle Kamieniec Ząbkowicki z obszaru gromady Kamieniec Ząbkowicki” (in Ząbkowice County, Wrocław Voivodeship, a settlement Kamieniec Ząbkowicki is created from the area of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki District) and on the regulation of town limits of § 6 of the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of 6 December 1969 on changes to the boundaries of settlements in the Kamieniec Ząbkowicki District in Ząbkowice County and Świerzawa in Złotoryja County, Wrocław Voivodeship, Journal of Laws no. 35 of 1969, item 296: Ability to create settlements (separate entities excluded from the rural areas of municipalities) was allowed by the Act of 25 September 1954 about settlements and national councils of settlements, Journal of Laws no. 43 of 1954, item 192:
― a settlement consisting of at least 1 000 inhabitants could be excluded from district
― state authority in settlements were the National Councils. ― The settlements apply provisions concerning the cities which are not urban counties.
― the settlements were formed by the Council of Ministers, on a proposal from Provincial Council of Ministers.
1973 – 1990 – Kamieniec Ząbkowicki is the seat of the Municipal National Council and since 1973 – the seat of the Municipal Office – as a result of administrative reform on 31 December 1972 loses the status of a settlement. Incorporation of Goleniów Śląski (later known as Kamieniec II) into the administrative boundaries of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki. Goleniów Śląski is now a part of the town Kamieniec Ząbkowicki.
1974 – population of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki is 4490.
1975 – 1998 – Kamieniec Ząbkowicki administratively belongs to Wałbrzych Voivodeship, since 1999 – Lower Silesian.
1979 – 1999 – renovation and adaptation of the west wing of the monastery for the purposes of a museum and tourist service point.
1983 – April 10 – evangelical church fire.
1985 – 1987 – archaeological research and the unveiling of the relics of the monastery buildings.
1985 – 1986 – carrying out work related to the removal of the rubble and securing the ruins of the palace.
1992 – 1997 – carrying out renovation work of the former evangelical church and the adaptation to the concert hall.
1991 – 1998 – renovation and adaptation of the prelacy building for a head office of the National Archives in Wrocław.
1997 – July – catastrophic flood, referred to as the “millennium flood”.
2012 – August – the municipality reacquires the legal title to the palace and park in Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, with plans to create Centrum Kulturotwórcze Myśli Polsko-Holenderskiej (Culture Centre of Polish-Dutch Thought) in the palace.
2012 – reconstruction of the clock mechanism and making of the bells chime in the evangelical church; reconstruction of the light illumination of tower and clock
2012 – start of inventory and security works at the palace, park and small architecture buildings: land-cleaning at the palace; temporary protection of damaged roofs over various parts of the palace; cleaning works of the park area. The actions were preceded by the relevant case studies – dendrological inventory, the expertise of the technical condition of the palace and design documentation.
2013 – May – making part of the palace halls available to the public (terraces and rooms of the ground floor), from May 2013 to August 2014 palace was visited by approx. 25 000 tourists.
2013 – 2014 – renovation of vaults in the ballroom of the palace with funding by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage.
2013 – upgrading works on the former evangelical church – lighting, painting work inside the building.
2012 – 2013 – development of Błonie Kamienieckie at Kolejowa and Zamkowa Streets as part of the Development Programme for Rural Areas for the years 2007-2013.
2013 – April 25 – acceptance of the symbols of the Kamieniec Ząbkowicki Municipality by the resolution of the Municipal Council: coat of arms, flag, banner, seals and chains. Coat of arms representing two facing each other climbing lions: the right one behind silver grille; the left one in a crown; blue background of the shield. The design of the coat of arms was approved by the heraldic committee in the Ministry of Administration and Digitization
2014 – renovation of the observation deck over the driveway hall and renovation of vaults of the hall with funding from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage 2012-2013.
2014 – further work on Błonie Kamienieckie.
2014 – August 28 – the resolution of the Municipal Council of Kamieniec Ząbkowicki established Cultural Park „Wzgórze Zamkowe, Dolina Budzówki i Nysy Kłodzkiej” in Kamieniec Ząbkowicki, cultural park area includes unique in supra-regional scale large capacity landscape design with a residence surrounded by a large park, built by Marianne of Orange-Nassau according to the projects of leading creators of the era: K.F. Schinkel and J.P. Lenné, former Cistercian Abbey with monastic settlement, the valley of Budzówka river with pasture ground and built at the foot of Góra Zamkowa evangelical church of the Holy Trinity, valley of Nysa Kłodzka and a village with water mill in Mały Byczeń. The purpose of introduction for this complex an additional form of protection is to provide legal, organizational and financial conditions for sustainable conservation of valuable qualities of the complex and to include them in spatial planning.
2014 – September 20 – opening of the permanent exhibition: „Dzieje i twórcy unikalnego zespołu pałacowoparkowego” (The history and creators of the unique palace-park complex) in the halls of the ground floor of the palace in Kamieniec Ząbkowicki (for the organization of the exhibition funds from the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage were obtained.
2014 – renovation of the bridge and historic figures of St John of Nepomuk and St Florian on the bridge at the Kościelny Square (funding from the budget of Lower Silesian Voivodeship).
2014 – completion of phase II of modernization works of the Municipal Cultural Centre building.